Two workshops combining risk identification, making activities and in-depth interviews were designed to substantively address research questions 1 and 2, and to a lesser extent, 3. These workshops were conducted during the data gathering phase of this study – the first was at Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen with NHS Grampian participants and the second was at Wishaw General, Lanarkshire with NHS Lanarkshire participants. The aim of these workshops was to attract a cross section of healthcare workers and patient representatives with experience of medical and surgical settings. The participants comprised qualified nurses, nursing assistants, domestics, domestic services monitoring managers, patient focused public representatives, and a construction design management co-ordinator. These workshops were broken down into four stages as follows:
Activity 1A and 1B (Context)
This activity was concerned with getting participants to think about their daily working practice within a single bedded area, in relation to the spread of pathogens. The aim was to provide team members with an understanding of the nature of healthcare professional’s behaviours and awareness within this environment.
During the first stage of this activity (1A), participants were asked to look at an image of a healthcare ward setting. They were then asked to think about this setting in relation to their current job role and locate where low and high pathogen risk sites might be found within this space.
Image used for Activity 1A
During the second stage of this activity (1B) the participants were shown an additional image, representing a time lapse of approximately 7 hours. Whilst observing the two images, participants were again asked to locate where low and high pathogen risk sites might be found within this space.
Image used for Activity 1B
Activity 2 (Attributes)
This activity was concerned with understanding the nature and meaning of healthcare workers’ visualisations of pathogens. During this activity each participant was provided with a ‘modeling toolkit’ containing marshmallows, plasticine, pipe-cleaners, cocktail sticks, paper, glue, scissors, masking tape, brillo pads, bubble wrap, and stickers. They were then asked to respond to a series of questions regarding their perception of pathogens whilst, at the same time, creating a visualisation of these perceptions by using the toolkits provided. This activity was conducted on a one-to-one basis with each participant working alone with a researcher from the Visinvis team to ensure that they were not influenced by other participants' reponses.
Activity 3 (Current Visual Language)
This activity was concerned with understanding the existing examples of representations of pathogens in healthcare settings which have the greatest influence on awareness and behaviour changes. Participants were grouped as a focus group and shown a presentation of a sample of existing pathogen prevention and awareness visuals currently used in healthcare settings. They were then asked to discuss and reflect upon these visual representations of pathogens and how these could be further developed.
Example of some of the images shown during Activity 3
Activity 4 (Issues)
This activity was concerned with understanding how digital visualisation could be used to articulate the data gathered in a way that would be meaningful and effective in influencing the awareness and behaviour of healthcare professionals in their daily working environment. During this activity participants were provided with a copy of Dr. Dancer’s poster entitled “Who touches What”. After being given time to review the data provided in this poster, participants were then asked to discuss how they felt this data could be represented visually.